Medical Glossary for Diseases and Complications (A-Z)


Tips on Blood Testing

Blood samples are required for many diagnostic tests. Many people are anxious about having their blood withdrawn. Here are some useful tips that may help an individual to make his/her blood test procedure more comfortable and less stressful. Some Useful Tips Breathe Don’t hold your breath while your blood is drawn. Breathe at a normal rate to prevent you from feeling faint. Drink Water Make sure you are well hydrated before you have your blood drawn as this may help to find a vein easily from where the blood can be withdrawn. Limit your intake of caffeine as it may increase the amount of urine you produce. Be Honest. Tell your doctor or physician if you have fainted in the past when your blood was withdrawn. Position yourself comfortably in a low chair rather than on top of a table to prevent any fall. Don’t watch while your blood is drawn if the sight of blood makes you queasy. Instead, watch television or read a magazine to distract yourself. Do not move while someone is withdrawing your blood as moving or wiggling can increase the number of attempts required.


Winter tiredness happens when you find it difficult to get out of bed on winter mornings, leading to fatigue. During winter, your sleep and waking cycles get disrupted. Since there is less sunlight, your body produces more melatonin, the hormone that makes you sleepy. Below are some tips that could help you ease fatigue during winters. Try to bring more sunlight into your home and open the curtains as soon as you wake up every morning. Stay outdoors as much as possible. If you are unable to get enough sunlight, include sources of vitamin D in your diet such as fish, eggs, meat, breakfast cereals, soya products, etc. Make sure that you get quality sleep every night. Maintain your sleeping pattern. Exercise regularly for about 150 minutes every week. Late afternoon exercising could improve your sleep and reduce early evening fatigue. Try relaxation techniques such as meditation, yoga and breathing exercises to keep stress away. Eat right by consuming a healthy diet with fruits, vegetables, dairy products and soups. Avoid sugary foods. Eat at regular intervals and have a wholesome breakfast every morning.

Tips to Keep Your Joints Healthy

If you are suffering from arthritis, you could use some of the below tips to prevent injury to your joints and keep your joints healthy. Taking care of your joints can keep you active and help you perform your day-to-day tasks with minimal difficulties. Perform your recommended exercises regularly for 30 minutes a day at least 5 days a week. If you are prone to injuries, consult your doctor about exercise programs and make the most of it Consult your doctor if you are in pain and are unable to do things you want to Apply ice packs to the affected areas to ease pain and swelling. Consult your doctor regarding braces and custom-made shoes which can absorb shock while walking To minimise the risk of injury to your joints, make changes to your home, like installing handles in your bathroom and removing furniture that blocks your way Lose weight if you are obese Visit your doctor regularly and keep a record of any pain, changes in your diet and activities performed to identify a pattern that can help you live with arthritis in a better way

Tips to Overcome Bad Breath

Bad breath or halitosis is generally a result of build-up of germs and bacteria in the mouth. Below are some tips to manage bad breath: Maintain oral hygiene by brushing and flossing regularly Scrape your tongue using your toothbrush or a tongue scraper Stop smoking as smoking damages gums and stains the teeth Rinse your mouth after every meal. You could also use mouthwashes after consulting your dentist Avoid chewing sugary candies, chew on sugarless gum instead. Chewing gum removes food debris and dead cells from the mouth and increases saliva production Consume plenty of water to avoid dryness of the mouth. Avoid sugary drinks Avoid drinking too much coffee Limit consumption of alcohol Consume a well-balanced diet and eat regularly. Snack on carrots and apples Avoid onion, garlic and spicy foods Consume foods that are rich in vitamins Chew on spices like cloves, fennel and anise If you use dentures, clean them regularly Visit your dentist if bad breath continues despite following the above tips

Treating Fever During Pregnancy

A low-grade fever, early in pregnancy may not be a problem. However, a high-grade fever (greater than 101°F or 38°C) can be a serious problem as it could be harmful for the baby’s development, particularly in the first trimester. Infection may be a common cause of high-grade fever in pregnancy. On the contrary, a fever in the later stages of pregnancy, after the baby has almost developed, may not pose much of a risk unless the cause of fever is due to intrauterine infection. Irrespective of your pregnancy stage, consult and report to your doctor if you are suffering from fever along with upper respiratory symptoms, body ache, flu-like symptoms or rashes and joint pain. TreatmentIf you are suffering from fever: Drink plenty of water Rest well Paracetamol is advisable for a short period only if prescribed by your doctor Do not take analgesics like ibuprofen, particularly during the third trimester Report to your doctor if you are not sure of the reason for fever: A urine or blood test may be suggested by your doctor to check the cause of infection and fever Do not delay if your ‘bag of water’ is broken