Medical Glossary for Diseases and Complications: (R)

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Reasons for and Management of Vomiting Bile

Bile is a digestive juice secreted by your liver and you may vomit it out along with your stomach contents. A greenish-yellow vomit indicates presence of bile in your vomit. Bile reflux occurs when excess bile is present in the stomach and moves upwards toward the food pipe.Reasons for Throwing up Bile:Intestinal blockage Excessive alcohol consumption Viral infections such as gastroenteritis, causing excessive vomiting Food poisoning Food allergies which trigger the immune system, leading to vomiting Vomiting on an empty stomach will always lead to bile in the vomitManagement: Stay away from alcohol if you have low tolerance to it Consume plenty of fluids including cold fruit juices Stay away from foods you may be allergic to Get adequate sleep Try having smaller meals Quit smoking Try herbs like ginger and cinnamon for relief Avoid caffeine, spicy foods, carbonated drinks, citrus foods, etc. Consume broths Avoid fatty foods Sit upright after meals


Reduce Children’s Discomfort During Tests and Procedures

Children may need to undergo a medical examination or procedures such as blood tests, stiches, injections or x-rays during any illness. Following are a few tips on how to help your child feel less scared and stressed. Procedures to make children comfortable include: Distraction Relaxation and breathing Medicines that help reduce pain Explain the procedure to your child and mention why he or she has to undergo the procedure. It may help your child feel reassured.Distraction ideas for infants younger than 6 monthsRocking and stroking the face Gentle patting Rattles and other baby toys SingingDistraction ideas for toddlers 6 months to 2 years of ageBlowing bubbles Toys and books that make sounds when pressed Singing the child’s favourite song Reading a book aloud to your childDistraction ideas for children older than 2 yearsCounting games Reading a book Playing their favourite DVDs or video games Ask your child if he or she wants to know what is happening or he or she prefers to focus on other activities. Stay with your child during the procedure Maintain contact with your child by holding hands or cuddling him or her


Ringworm Infection

A ringworm infection occurs due to a fungus, and not a worm, causing the skin to appear scaly, with red circular rashes. It can affect any part of your body, especially the beard, scalp, feet and groin. It is a contagious condition that can spread by direct contact with infected people, clothing and furniture.SymptomsItchy, red, raised scaly patches that may ooze out pus The patches may have sharp-defined edges The patches may be a darker red on the outside than the inside If the hair is affected, bald patches may be observed Discoloured, thick and brittle nails if the infection occurs in the nailsPreventionDry yourself completely after showers and maintain hygiene Avoid sharing clothes, towels and sports equipment Wear footwear in public bathing areas and locker rooms Take a shower after playing sportsManagementKeep your skin clean and dry Wear loose and irritation-free clothing Wash clothing and sheets of infected persons everyday Apply antifungal powders and lotions after consulting your doctor You may require medication from your doctor if the infection keeps coming back or if it becomes severe