Medical Glossary for Diseases and Complications: (P)

ALL A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

Piles (Haemorrhoids)

Haemorrhoids or piles are swollen cushions of tissue in the anus or lower part of the rectum resulting from bulging of veins. It is due to the straining during bowel movements or increased pressure on these veins during pregnancy.SymptomsPainless bleeding during bowel movements Itching or irritation in anal region Pain or discomfort Swelling around the anus Lump near the anus which may be sensitive or painful Leakage of stoolsCausesPiles can develop due to increase in pressure in the lower rectum resulting from: Straining during bowel movements Sitting for long periods of time on the toilet Long-standing diarrhoea or constipation Obesity Pregnancy Low-fibre dietHow to manageApply anti-haemorroid cream Soak your anal area in plain warm water around 10 to 15 minutes,2 to 3 times a day Keep the anal area clean Apply ice packs or cold compress on your anus to relieve swelling Take oral pain relievers as prescribed by doctor which may help to relieve your discomfortPreventionEat high fibre foods Drink plenty of fluids Regular exercise Do not strain or hold your breath when passing stools


Precautions and Prevention of Swallowing Objects by Children

Some tips to be followed to prevent common choking hazards for children Always supervise small children while they are eating Children should sit up upright while eating Cut foods in to small pieces and remove seeds Some food items can cause choking hazards like Meat, fish with bones, Popcorn, chips, and other such snacks Candy (especially hard or sticky candy), gum, lollipops, caramels, and jelly beans Whole grapes, raw vegetables, raw peas, fruits, seeds, carrots, celery, and cherries Dryfruits and nuts Ice cubes and cheese cubes Some household Items/toys can cause hazards such as Latex balloons, coins, marbles, toys with small parts, small balls, pen or marker caps, button type batteries, medicine syringes, and screws Any toy or other object that is labelled as a potential choking hazard


Preventing Any Condition That Can Lead to Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in Children

Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is an emergency life-saving measure performed on people whose heart has stopped beating or who are not breathing. This method supports blood flow and breathing until medical help arrives. The steps of CPR are C-A-B: C: Chest compression A: Airway B:Breathing CPR should be performed if the victim has following symptoms: Not able to breathe No pulse or heartbeat Unconsciousness


Preventing Back Injuries

Back injuries can occur while lifting objects, especially in people older than 30 years. With increasing age, the muscles become less flexible and bones get brittle, which makes you prone to back injuries. Here are some tips to prevent back injuries while lifting objects: Before you lift any object, assess how heavy it is by pushing the object slightly with your hands or feet to see how easily it moves. This can give you a fair sense of the weight and whether you will be able to lift it. Make sure that the object you are trying to lift or any content within it doesn’t move around while lifting. Make sure you have a good grip on the object before lifting it Stand close to the object before lifting and keep it close to your body after lifting it Avoid arching your back. Bend your knees and keep your back straight while lifting to avoid straining your back Stretch your legs and back before lifting any object Avoid walking on slippery and uneven surfaces while carrying objects Tighten your stomach muscles while lifting or placing down objects Squat while placing objects down Do not attempt to lift an object if you feel it is too heavy for you. Get help in such cases


Prevention of Choking in Children

Choking occurs when any object or food gets lodged in the throat or windpipe. Sometimes,the lodged food/object blocks the flow of the air, resulting in breathing difficulty.Signs and Symptoms of ChokingDifficulty in speaking Unable to cough Difficulty in breathing Bluish discolouration of lips, skin or nails due to lack of oxygenChoking HazardsMost common objects that children may choke on include: Candy Popcorn Chewing gum Grapes Pencil erasers Coins Buttons Toys with small partsPreventionNever leave a small child unsupervised while eating Keep small objects such as buttons, small toys and nuts away from children Do not allow your child to crawl while eating Cut fruits/vegetables into small pieces and remove any seeds


Prevention of Head injury

Traumatic brain injury is defined as a blow or jolt to the head or a penetrating head injury that disrupts the normal functions of the brain.General prevention tipsSupervise young children at all times Do not let your children to use sports equipment or play sports which are unsuitable for their age Do not let your children play on hard surfaces Do not wear any clothing that can interfere with your vision Do not participate in sports when your are not feeling well Discard and replace sporting equipment Always wear seat belts while driving Never drive while you are drunk Remove hazards in home that may cause any injury Secure rugs and loose electric cords Wear helmets and head gear during sports to prevent any head injuries Use safety gates and install window guards to protect the toddlers from any injury


Prevention of Nosebleeds

Minor nosebleeds usually stop with self-care. If you are having heavy or frequent nose bleeding, you should visit your doctor. Tips to be followed that may reduce your risk of developing nosebleeds or having a repeat episode Avoid blowing your nose hard Avoid lifting or straining Avoid picking your nose with a finger Avoid removing the crusts Uplift your head on one or two pillows while sleeping Quit smoking Keep your blood pressure under control Apply a light coating of a moisturising ointment such as Vaseline inside your nose Avoid low humidity, as it is a common cause of nose bleeds If your nose becomes dry, breathe moist air or apply a moisturising ointment inside your nostrils. Do not apply anything inside your nose while you are still bleeding Saline nasal spray helps moisten your nasal tissuePreventionTrim your children’s fingernails to prevent a bleed in case they nose pick Discourage your children from nose picking Discourage your children from putting any object into their nostrils


Prevention of Rickets/Osteomalacia

Several steps can help prevent rickets/osteomalacia. Some of these steps are Diet. Ensure your child has a healthy, balanced diet that contains plenty of calcium and vitamin D Oily fish such as salmon, sardine and mackerel Eggs Fortified fat spreads Fortified breakfast cereals Dairy products such as milk, cheese and yogurt Green vegetables such as broccoli and cabbage Nuts Soya beans and tofu Sunlight. It is a good source for vitamin D Hands and face should be exposed to sunlight for 10-15 min Babies and young children have sensitive skin that burns easily, so use a sunscreen Supplements Certain people have a risk of developing vitamin D deficiency. They need to take supplements to prevent rickets/osteomalacia. Pregnant and breast-feeding women Pregnant women should take vitamin D supplements to reduce the risk of their children developing rickets Children Vitamin drops can be used in babies and younger children


Prevention of Stroke

Stroke can be prevented by adopting various lifestyle modifications detailed below.Healthy DietPoor diet is a major factor for a stroke. Some diet tips to be followed include: Eat a low-fat and high-fibre diet Eat plenty of fruits and vegetables Limit the amount of salt Avoid fatty food which increase cholesterol levelsRegular Exercise Healthy diet along with regular exercise lowers your cholesterol levels and helps you maintain a healthy body weight. Regular exercise also helps to avoid developing high blood pressure. Start exercising and gradual increase the duration to about thirty minutes a day. Exercises could be walking, jogging, swimming or bicycling. Avoid SmokingSmoking narrows the arteries and makes you more prone to blood clots which can lead to stroke. Stop smoking to reduce the risk of stroke by up to 50%.Avoid AlcoholExcessive alcohol consumption increases your chances of developing high blood pressure and other heart problems. Heavy drinkers are 3 times more likely to develop a stroke.


Prickly Heat Rashes

Prickly heat rashes develop when a person sweats excessively, mainly in hot and humid weather. Prickly heat rashes are small, red, raised spots that cause a tingling sensation. The rashes may itch and swell and are usually observed on the back, abdomen, neck, chest, groin or armpits. The following factors increase the risk of developing prickly heat rashes: Excessive perspiration in a hot and humid weather Being confined to a bed for a long time due to illness Wearing too much clothing during winter Sitting too close to a heater or fire ObesityTips to Avoid Rashes:Avoid going outdoors in an excessively hot and humid weather Drink plenty of fluids to avoid dehydration Wear loose cotton clothing Take cool baths and showers Use cold compresses on your skin, but limit the usage to not more than 20 minutes Try using calamine lotion to soothe the skin Avoid using oil-based lotions and creams Use air-conditioning, if possible Consult your doctor if the rashes do not go away within few days or if an infection develops at the affected area.