Medical Glossary for Diseases and Complications (A-Z)


Can Changes in Weather Trigger a Headache?

It has been observed that changes in weather can trigger headaches and migraine attacks in certain individuals. Changes in weather can affect the chemicals in the brain. Weather changes that can trigger a headache include: Changes in atmospheric pressure Changes in humidity Changes in temperatures Thunderstorms Extremely dry and dusty conditions Other environmental factors, such as smoke, intense odours or bright lights can also trigger headaches. Many individuals refrain from participating in outdoor activities and stay away from places which are polluted by smoke.

Cardiogenic shock

Cardiogenic shock is a condition in which the heart has been damaged and is unable to pump enough blood to the organs of the body. It is most often caused by severe heart attack. Cardiogenic shock is rare, but it's often fatal if not treated immediately. If treated immediately, about half the people who develop the condition survive.

Caring For Your Joints

A joint is the connection between two bones. Joints and their surrounding structures allow you to bend the elbows and knees. Keeping your weight under control is the best thing you can do to take care of your joints. Losing weight reduces the pressure on your knees, hips and back, which helps prevent joint injuries. Low-impact exercises such as swimming or bicycling help strengthen joints.

Chemical Burns

A chemical burn is the irritation or destruction of body tissue, such as skin, caused by direct exposure to a chemical or its fumes. It may occur at home, work or school. Most common household products that can cause chemical burns are: Bleach Concrete mix Drain or toilet bowl cleaners Metal cleaners Pool chlorinators

Colon Cancer

Colon Cancer is cancer of the colon or rectum located in large intestine, the lower part of digestive system. Signs and symptoms include blood in the stools, change in bowel movements, weight loss and feeling tired all the time. Globally, colon cancer is the third most common type of cancer making up to 10% of all cases. Treatment for colon cancer include combination of surgeries, chemotherapy, radiation therapy and targeted therapy.

Common Facts About Cold

Cold is caused by the cold virus and not by the cold weather. Your nose gets blocked not because of the mucus, but because of the infection-fighting cells that cause the blood vessels and tissues of your nose to swell up. Women catch cold more often than men. The colour of your mucus (yellow to green) is because of the presence of increased infection-fighting cells in the nasal area. Any healthy person with a normal immune system can get a cold; the person need not have a weak immune system to be susceptible to the virus. Blowing your nose, sneezing and coughing may remove dust and pollen, but not the virus, and the virus can spread to other people.

Congenital heart defect

Congenital heart defect is a condition of the heart that is present at birth. If a child has congenital heart defect it means that the child was born with a problem in the structure of his or her heart. Some congenital heart defects are small and don’t need treatment such as a small hole between heart chambers that closes on its own with time. Other congenital heart defects can be complex and may require a series of surgeries over a period of time.

Contrast Materials Used in CT Scan

Contrast materials are chemical agents used in various diagnostic procedures such as X-rays, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasound to improve the quality of pictures of the parts of human body. These materials allow the radiologists to differentiate normal from abnormal conditions, leading to diagnose medical conditions better. Some of the common types of Contrast Materials used are Iodine-based contrasts and barium sulphate (used in X-rays and CT scan examination) Gadolinium (used in MRI) Saline (salt water) and air Microbubbles and microspheres (in ultrasound imaging examinations, particularly for the examination of the heart)

Coping With Diarrhoea and Digestive Distress

There are some types of food that may trigger diarrhoea and digestive problems. 1) Fried Food: Avoid having fried food,as it contains high fat 2) Citrus Fruits: Avoid citrus fruits, as they may cause intestinal distress in some people because of their high fibre content 3) Artificial Sugar: Excessive amount of any food with artificial sweeteners may cause diarrhoea 4) Too Much Fibre: Avoid having excessive quantities of foods that are high in fibre,as they may cause gas and bloating in some people 5) Fructose:Avoid foods sweetened with fructose, including sodas, candy, fruit juice and pastries,as they may lead to diarrhoea, bloating, cramping and other distress 6) Spicy Food: Eating spicy food may cause heart burn and indigestion in some people 7) Dairy Products Lactose-intolerant patients should avoid dairy products,as they may cause diarrhoea, bloating and gas.

Coping With Sprains and Strains

Most sprains and strains can be managed at home. If the injury is minor you can administer: PRICE Therapy It stands for:Protection: Protect the injured area by using an appropriate support. An example is to use lace-up shoes that reach up to the lower part of the leg and cover the ankle in case of ankle injuries. Rest: Avoid activity when injured. Rest your injured muscle or joint. Ice: Apply ice wrapped in a damp towel to the injured area for 15 to 20 min once every 2-3 hours. Compression: Apply crepe bandage snugly, but not too tightly, to the injured area to limit the swelling and movement. Remove the bandage before going to sleep. Elevation: Keep the injured area elevated and supported on a pillow, most of the time.This helps reduce swelling.

Corns and Callus

Callus is a toughened area of skin which has become relatively thick and hard in response to repeated friction, pressure or irritation. A corn is a specially shaped callus of dead skin that usually occurs on thin, hairless and smooth surfaces of skin, especially on the dorsal surface of toes and fingers. Corns and callus mostly develop on feet and toes or hands and fingers. Generally corns and callus disappear once the source of friction is avoided. If you have diabetes, however, seek your doctor advice as they may lead to greater complications.

Crohn’s disease

Crohn’s disease is a type of inflammatory bowel disease that may affect any part of gastrointestinal tract from mouth to anus. The inflammation caused by Crohn's disease often spreads deep into the layers of affected bowel tissue. Signs and Symptoms include abdominal pain, diarrhea, fever and weight loss. Even though there are no medications or surgical procedures that can cure Crohn’s disease, therapies can greatly reduce signs and symptoms, maintain remission and prevent relapse.