Medical Glossary for Diseases and Complications: (B)

ALL A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

Biliary Atresia

Biliary Atresia is a childhood disease of the liver in which one or more bile ducts are abnormally low, blocked or absent. Biliary Atresia can be acquired as a birth defect in newborn infants or can be acquired due to a viral infection of the liver soon after the birth. Yellowing of the skin, pale stools, dark urine and swollen abdomen are the symptoms. The only effective treatments are surgeries such as the Kasai procedure and liver transplantation.


Bladder Stone

Bladder stone is a stone found in the urinary bladder. Bladder stones are generally formed when urine in your bladder becomes concentrated or when you are dehydrated. This allows for minerals like calcium and magnesium turn into crystallized stones. Symptoms include severe abdominal and lower back pain, difficulty in urination and blood in urine. Small bladder stones are generally passed out through urine but you may need to have others removed.


Bone Biopsy

A bone biopsy is a procedure in which bone samples are removed (with a special biopsy needle or during the surgery) to determine if cancer, infection or any other bone disorder is present. Two types of procedures can be used to conduct a bone biopsy: 1) Needle biopsy: A local anaesthetic agent is administered, and the needle is injected through the skin directly into the bone to obtain a sample. 2) Open biopsy: General anaesthesia is administered and a larger incision is made through the skin to expose an area of the bone. If needed, the doctor may perform any surgical procedure depending on the findings.


Breast Cancer

Breast cancer is cancer that develops from the breast tissue. Although it can occur to both men and women, breast cancer is far more common in women. Breast cancer is a global disease and is becoming the most common cancer in India. Symptoms include lump in the breast, change in breast shape, fluids coming from nipple or a red scaly patch of skin. Breast cancer survival rates have increased and steady drop in the number of deaths can be noticed in recent years largely due to increased awareness, early detection and personalized approach to disease.


Bronchiolitis

Bronchiolitis causes congestion in bronchioles, the smallest air passages of the lungs. Bronchiolitis is a common lung infection in infants and children of less than two years of age. It starts off with symptoms similar to common cold but progresses to coughing, wheezing and difficulty in breathing. Symptoms lasts for several weeks, sometimes even a month but generally children get better with supportive care at home.