Medical Glossary for Diseases and Complications: (A)

ALL A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

Absence Seizures

An absence seizure is a sudden lapse of consciousness characterized by a blank or ‘absent’ stare. It commonly affects children than adults. Although the cause of absence seizure is unknown, it occurs when there is an abnormal electrical activity in the brain. It may also be due to the genetic predisposition of a person. Usually, children stop having these seizures as they grow into their teen years.


Acne

Acne is a skin disease that occurs when hair follicles become clogged with oil and dead skin cells. Acne primarily affects face, upper part of the chest and back. Acne is most common among teenagers affecting 80-90% of them worldwide. Depending on the severity, acne can lead to anxiety, reduced self esteem and depression.


Ankylosing Spondylitis

Ankylosing spondylitis is a type of arthritis that can affect the spine. It causes swelling in the disks between the vertebrae. The exact cause of ankylosing spondylitis is unknown, but genetic and immune factors may be involved. It often runs in families.


Anorexia in Patients With Cancer

Anorexia or loss of appetite is commonly observed in patients with cancer. While some patients with cancer are anorexic when they are diagnosed with cancer, some people develop anorexia during different stages of cancer. At times, anorexia can also occur while receiving treatment for cancer.


Appendicitis

Appendicitis is inflammation of Appendix, a finger shaped pouch extending from colon on the right side of abdomen. Appendicitis causes severe pain in your abdomen, generally starting from navel and then moves. Appendix doesn’t serve any purpose and hence surgical removal is generally the standard treatment of Appendicitis.


Are You Aware of Jaundice in Newborn Babies?

Jaundice is a common condition in newborn babies and generally results in a yellowish discolouration of the skin and the eyes due to increased bilirubin levels in blood. Jaundice may also arise due to insufficient breast-feeding, substances produced in mother’s milk that increases the baby’s bilirubin levels or due to blood group mismatch between the mother and baby. It is generally a mild condition and improves on its own within 1 or 2 weeks. In rare cases, it may be dangerous leading to deafness or brain damage.


Asthma

Asthma is a condition affecting the lungs in which air passages narrow, swell and produce extra mucus. This makes breathing difficult and can often lead to coughing, wheezing, chest tightness and shortness of breath. Asthma can’t be cured but it’s symptoms can be controlled. Since asthma changes over time, it is important to track allergens and irritants and work with your doctor to adjust or change treatment as needed.


Atrial Fibrillation

Atrial Fibrillation(AF) is abnormal, irregular and often rapid heart rate that leads to heart palpitations, fainting, shortness of breath and chest pain. During AF, heart’s two upper chambers beat irregularly and out of sync with heart’s two lower chambers. AF can lead to formation of blood clots in heart that may circulate to other organs and cause blockage of blood flow. AF is treated with medications to slow the heart rate and alter heart’s electrical system.